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Introduction to Working Principle and Steering System of Automobile Steering Motor

The steering system configured on the vehicle can be roughly divided into three categories: (1) one is the mechanical hydraulic power steering system; (2) One is electro-hydraulic power steering system; (3) Another electric power steering system.

1. The full English name is electronic power steering, or EPS for short. It uses the power generated by the motor to assist the driver in power steering. The composition of EPS is basically the same for different vehicles, although the structural components are different. It is generally composed of torque (steering) sensor, electronic control unit, motor, reducer, mechanical steering gear and battery power supply.

2. Main working principle: when the vehicle is turning, the torque (steering) sensor will "feel" the torque of the steering wheel and the direction to be turned. These signals will be sent to the electronic control unit through the data bus. The electronic control unit will send action instructions to the motor controller according to the transmission torque, the direction to be turned and other data signals, Thus, the motor will output the corresponding rotating torque according to the specific needs, resulting in power steering. If you do not turn, the system will not work and is in a standby state waiting for call. Due to the working characteristics of electric power steering, you will feel that driving such a car has a better sense of direction and is more stable at high speed. As the saying goes, the direction does not drift. And because it does not work when it does not turn, it also saves energy to some extent. Generally, high-end cars use such power steering system more.

Because the electric power steering system only needs electric power without hydraulic pressure, many components are omitted compared with the mechanical hydraulic power steering system. There is no oil pump, oil pipe, pressure flow control valve, oil storage tank, etc. required by the hydraulic system. The number of parts is small, the layout is convenient and the weight is light.

And there is no "parasitic loss" and liquid leakage loss. Therefore, the electric power steering system can save about 80% energy under various driving conditions, and improve the running performance of the vehicle. Therefore, it has been rapidly popularized in recent years, and it is also the development direction of power steering system in the future.

Some cars are called electric power steering. In fact, it is not a pure electric power steering in the real sense. It also needs a hydraulic system, which is only supplied by an electric motor. The oil pump of the traditional hydraulic power steering system is driven by the engine.

In order to ensure the portability of the vehicle when turning in place or at low speed, the displacement of the oil pump is determined by the flow when the engine is idling. The vehicle is in the speed higher than idle speed and straight-line driving state most of the time, which can only return most of the oil output from the oil pump to the oil storage tank through the control valve, resulting in great "parasitic loss".

In order to reduce this kind of loss, the motor drives the oil pump. When the vehicle runs in a straight line, the motor runs at low speed, and when the vehicle turns, the motor runs at high speed. The flow and pressure of the oil pump are adjusted by controlling the speed of the motor to reduce the "parasitic loss".

1. Mechanical hydraulic power steering system is generally composed of hydraulic pump, oil pipe, pressure flow control valve body, V-shaped transmission belt, oil storage tank and other components.

2. No matter whether the vehicle is steering or not, this system must work, and when the steering speed is low, the hydraulic pump needs to output more power to obtain greater power. Therefore, it also wastes resources to a certain extent. It can be recalled that when driving such a car, especially when turning at low speed, I think the direction is heavy and the engine takes more effort. Because the pressure of the hydraulic pump is very high, it is easy to damage the power assist system. In addition, the mechanical hydraulic power steering system is composed of hydraulic pump, pipeline and oil cylinder. In order to maintain pressure, whether steering power is required or not, the system must be in working state and consume high energy, which is also a reason for resource consumption. Mechanical hydraulic power assist system is often used in general economical cars.

1. Main components: oil storage tank, power steering control unit, electric pump, steering gear, power steering sensor, etc. the power steering control unit and electric pump are an integral structure.

2. Working principle: the electro-hydraulic power steering system overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional hydraulic power steering system. The hydraulic pump is no longer directly driven by the engine belt, but an electric pump. All its working states are the most ideal state calculated by the electronic control unit according to the vehicle's driving speed, steering angle and other signals. In short, when turning at low speed and large, the electronic control unit drives the electronic hydraulic pump to run at high speed and output large power, so as to save the driver's effort in steering; When the vehicle is driving at high speed, the hydraulic control unit drives the electronic hydraulic pump to operate at a lower speed, which will not affect the need of high-speed steering and save part of the engine power.

Introduction to Working Principle and Steering System of Automobile Steering Motor 1

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